Class 10: The Second Dissolution of the West: Vikings and Feudalism?
I. Introduction A. Today - Collapse of the Carolingian Achievement Second period of dissolution for the West. B. Why? -Ephemeral Nature of Carolingian Achievement. Built on shaky foundations. DISCUSS End of booty (cf. Islam. -New invasions. -But the period also saw the creation of the Agrarian basis for much of middle ages. II. Politics: The Later Carolingians A. Louis the Pious 814-840 Not as effective a forbears - aimed at imperial unity. B. Division of the Empire - Based on Carolingian Family History - Origins of France and Germany -Lothair the Emperor -Charles the Bald (France., 840-877 -Louis the German 840-876 C. Oath of Strasbourg 842 - Shows import of Vassalage ties Treaty of Verdun 843 - Map p 101 Lorraine fought over until 1945 Linguistic developments - Vernaculars III. New Invasions A. Muslim Attacks - as pirates -Spain, Italy, Provence B. Steppe Peoples - Magyars - Hungarians late 800s-955 Affects Germany mainly C. Vikings 1. Scandinavia - Danes, Swedes and Norwegians -Overpopulation not to be overplayed as a factor. Scandinavia a center of emigration continuously. 2. Raids Map p. 105 - 793 - Lindesfarne, 794 - Jarrow 84 2 - London, 881- Aachen 3. -Sea Farers - improved Viking ships Greenland/Vinland/Sagas -Traders - the Rus - Slavized -Settlers - Normandy 911 Rolf/The Danelaw/Ireland 4. Conversion from 1000 St. Olaf - by mistake IV. Royal Domains A. Effects of Raids had different political impacts problems of defense B. England - -Viking attacks severe - Danelaw -Unity needed in response Alfred the Great 871-899 - Wessex Canute 1017-1035- North Sea Empire -1066 - Normans C. France - much bigger than England -Defense could only be local - Growth in power of local lordships and weakness of Carolingian kings. -The Capetians 987 still weak for centuries. No royal laws from Louis the Pious until 1180s. -The Ile de France D. Germany Five big duchies - then from 919 the Saxon Royal House takes over. Refounds the HRE 962 V. Development of "Feudalism"? A. `Forms of association' - what much of history is about. -Family - State - employment - Feudalism B. Counts - c. 300 Installed as Public officials Already had private lands. Now granted crown lands and offices. Public and private power merge - e.g. in courts C. Subinfeudation and multiple lords -by 895 D. Did "Feudalism" really exist? a. historians' disputes b. The great variety of forms and terms. Allodial Land/Public jurisdiction/Church power c. No "Feudalism" - Holland Italy Spain, much of Germany E. "Feudal" rights and obligations -Mutual - the great difference from Japan. -Leads to both Common law, and Parliaments G. Greater Nobles build stable states Normandy and Flanders. H. Castles -Primitive Provide security against raids Ability to control territory -Induce a change in the nobility take names from castles - Lineages VI. Life for the Majority - Life on the Land Lack of commerce in West. cf. Constantinople and Cordova. But there was, pace Pirenne, still some trade - but on a low level - Until stability returned and travel was possible. A. Roman Farming - southern model Villas - Coloni - Square Fields - Two field rotation B. Evolution - much continuity -Slaves become serfs - public authority to weak to preserve the institution -Much land is abandoned C. The Village - Unit of work and agrarian organization -Peasants -Houses become more stable and built of securer material -Fields - two fields to three fields -Importance of the type of plow used -Water mills -Villages tied down - by Manors and Churches Stable village a new phenomenon in 10th century D. The Manor (only in some areas. -Unit of jurisdiction, dues and obligations -Variety of statuses
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© Paul Halsall, 1996.
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