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University of Manchester: HIST 20742/Spring 2011

Power and Protest in Late Medieval England




Syllabus/Course Outline

Course Lecturer: Dr. Paul Halsall

Email [:ihsp@fordham.edu]

Office: Samuel Alexander Bldg. N2.11

Office Hours: Wed, Thurs 12-1pm

This course will examine the major forms of power (political, social and religious) within medieval English society and will ask to what extent these forms of power generated resistance from particular social groups. It will establish what sources are available for the study of social, political and religious conflict in late medieval England and will examine the use of imaginative literature as a source for medieval social attitudes.

TIMETABLE : Spring Semester 2011: 31 January - 8 April, 2011, 2 May - 10 June, 2011

Lectures You must attend both lectures every week

Wednesday 10.00-11.00am Room - Humanities Bridgford G33

Thursday 10.00-11.00am Room - Samuel Alexander A101

Seminars You must attend the seminar every week for which you are enrolled

Tuesday 10.00 Room - University Place 6.210

Wednesday 11.00 Rome - Samuel Alexander S2.20.

Thursday 11.00 Room- Simon 4A

AIMS

The aims of this course are to look at the political, religious, social and cultural history of late medieval England, in particular of the reign of Richard II (1377-99), and to ask what the conflicts of the period reveal about the nature of English society.

Four main topics will be examined: the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, the ballads of Robin Hood, the kingship and deposition of Richard II, and Lollardy. Particular emphasis will be placed on the primary sources which are available for the study of these episodes and the difficulties involved in using and assessing such sources.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of the course students should have a broad understanding of the main forms of power within English medieval society and of the forms which resistance to such power could take. They will have a knowledge of the major debates about this period and of the primary evidence which is available for it.

CLASS SCHEDULE

Lectures/Seminars

WEEK 1

February 2 1. Course and Topics

February 3 2. Medieval England: The Story so Far

Seminar 1:

WEEK 2

February 9 3. Land and People

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 1 (Bruce Campell), Chap 2 (Philippa Schofield) [e-book]

Paul Freedman,  "Rural Society," The New Cambridge Medieval History. Ed. Michael Jones. Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. 82-95 [Cambridge Histories Online.]

February 10 4. The Black Death and its Effects

Europe and the Spread of the Black Death: Eight Maps
http://historymedren.about.com/od/theblackdeath/ig/Spread-of-the-Black-Death/ms1346eura.htm

Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), Decameron: Introduction
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/boccacio2.html

Jean de Venette on the Progress of the Black Death
http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/plague.html

Caroline Klapisch-Zuber, "Plague and Family Life [Cambridge Histories Online.]

Seminar 2:

WEEK 3

February 16 5. Peasant Society after the Black Death

Ordinance of Labourers 1349.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/seth/ordinance-labourers.html

Statute of Labourers, 1351
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/seth/statute-labourers.html

C. Dyer, 'The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381' from from R.H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, eds, The English Rising of 1381 (1984) repr. (Stroud, 2004). [high demand]

Given-Wilson, C., ‘Service, Serfdom, and English Labour Legislation, 1350-1500’, in Curry, A. and Matthew, E., Concepts and Patterns of Service in the Later Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2000), 21-37.

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 2 (Philippa Schofield) [e-book]

February 17 6. The Peasants' Revolt: I (events, sources)

Jean Froissart, Chronicle. Book II.

Book II, Chap 73 Beginning of the English Peasant Revolt.
http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/froissart/peasants.htm

Book II, Chap 73 Death of Sir Robert Salle in the Peasant Revolt. http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/froissart/salle.htm

Book II, Chap 78 King Richard punishes the rebels in Kent. http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/froissart/king.htm

Anonimalle Chronicle: English Peasants' Revolt 1381, from Charles Oman, The Great Revolt of 1381, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906), pp. 200-203, 205 http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/anon1381.html

N. Saul, Richard II, (London, Yale UP, 1997). Chap 4 [high demand]

Seminar 4:

WEEK 4

February 23 7. The Peasants' Revolt: II (theories of revolt)

S. H. Rigby English Society in the Later Middle Ages, (London, Macmillan, 1995) ch. 3. [high demand]

Paul Freedman,  "Rural Society” Pp. 95-101 [Cambridge Histories Online.]

February 24 8. The Peasants' Revolt: III (comparative approach)

Jean Froissart: The Jacquerie, 1358, from Chronicles, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/froissart2.html

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 4 (Jane Whittle and S.H. Rigby) [e-book]

Seminar 4:

WEEK 5

March 2 9. The Peasants' Revolt: IV (the urban revolts)

A. Tuck, 'Nobles, Commons and the Great Revolt of 1381' from R.H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, eds, The English Rising of 1381 (Stroud, 2004). [high demand]

Jean-Pierre Leguay,  "Urban Life,"  [Cambridge Histories Online.]

March 3 10. The Church and Education

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 18 (David Lapine) Chap 23 (Jo Ann Moran Cruz) [e-book]

Seminar 5:

WEEK 6

March 9 11. Orthodoxy and Piety

E. Duffy. The Stripping of the Altars. 2nd ed. (London, Yale UP, 2005). “Introduction to 2nd Edition,” and “Introduction [both available in preview at amazon.co.uk]

March 10 12. Theology, Heresy and Wycliff

Jacques Verger,  "The Universities,"  [Cambridge Histories Online.]

Kantik Ghosh, "Wycliffism and Lollardy” [Cambridge Histories Online.]

Seminar 6:

WEEK 7

March 16 13.. The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards

  "The Twelve Conclusions of the Lollards", English Historical Review, 22 (1907), 292-304. http://www.courses.fas.harvard.edu/~chaucer/special/varia/lollards/lollconc.htm

March 17 14. The Lollard Movement

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 19 (Matthew Groom) [e-book]

A. Hudson, The Premature Reformation , (Oxford, Clarendon, 1988) Chaps 2, 3. [high demand]

Seminar 7:

WEEK 8

March 23 15. Middle English Literature

Chaucer: Prologue, Miller’s Tale

Langland, Piers Plowman – selections

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 25 (S.H. Rigby) [e-book]

March 24 16. The Ballads of Robin Hood: I (The Gest of Robin Hood)

A Gest of Robyn Hode. http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/teams/gest.htm
and
http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/teams/gestint.htm

J C Holt, Robin Hood rev. ed (London, Thames and Hudson, 1989), Chaps 1-3 [high demand]

Website: Robin Hood Project (University of Rochester)
http://www.lib.rochester.edu/camelot/rh/rhaumenu.htm

Seminar 8:

WEEK 9

March 30 17. The Ballads of Robin Hood: II (dating; realism and convention in literature)

March 31 18. The Ballads of Robin Hood: III (audience and ideology)

J C Holt, Robin Hood rev. ed (London, Thames and Hudson, 1989), Chap 6 [high demand]

Seminar 9:

WEEK 10

April 6 19. Richard II: the structure of government and the early years of the reign

Roger of Hoveden: Order of Coronation of Richard I, 1189.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/hoveden1189a.html

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 12 (Rosemary Horrox) [e-book]

N. Saul, Richard II, (London, Yale UP, 1997). Chaps 1, 2, 3 [high demand]

Caroline M. Barron, "The Reign of Richard II." . [Cambridge Histories Online]

April 7 20. Richard II: theories of kingship and the Wilton Diptych

N. Saul, Richard II, (London, Yale UP, 1997). Chaps 8, 14 [high demand]

Seminar 10:

SEMESTER BREAK

WEEK 11

May 4 21 Richard II: the events of the deposition and the chronicle accounts

Various Chronicle Accounts – will be posted [on blackboard]

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 14 (Christine Carpenter) [e-book]

May 5 22. Richard II: articles of deposition and the aftermath

Articles of Depositionwill be posted [on blackboard]

Edward Powell, "Lancastrian England," . [Cambridge Histories Online.]

Seminar 11:

WEEK 12

May 10 21 Gender, Scolding, and Sodomy: discourses of power?

The Questioning of John Rykener, A Male Cross-Dressing Prostitute, 1395
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1395rykener.html

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). Chap 5 (Judith Bennett) [e-book]

May 11 22. Power and Protest / Seminar 12:

 


General Bibliography

Reading Strategy

Lectures are only the start of your learning. They need to be backed up by a lot of reading on your part. For each lecture in the list below particular articles, book chapters, and online sources are specified. These pertain to the class in question, and will be the focus of the seminars, but will not necessarily give you a broad overview.

You will also need to do regular background reading to find out the big picture (what actually happened, what the big issues are). This will help you fill out the lectures and comment in seminars. In the general bibliography that follows are indicted six books which are really fundamental, and then a series of topic based book lists which follow the basic organisation of the course.

Finally, you will need to do detailed independent research for your essays and exams, which will include the ‘big picture’ reading and the weekly seminar reading, but go further into the collections of books and academic journals held in the John Rylands Library. You have received some training on how to do this in HIST10101: History in Practice. Essay question focused bibliographies are give with the essay lists.

Basic Reading:

The core books for this course which are held in the High Demand area of the John Rylands University Library.

S. H. Rigby, ed. A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2002). [e-book]

R.H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, eds, The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984). [high demand]

A. Dunn, The Peasants’ Revolt, 2nd Rev Ed edition (Stroud, Tempus, 2004) [high demand]

A. Hudson, The Premature Reformation, (Oxford, Clarendon, 1988) [high demand]

J. C. Holt, Robin Hood, 2nd revised edition (London, Thames & Hudson; 1989) [high demand]

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999) [high demand]


Social and Economic History and 1381 Revolt

J. L. Bolton, The Medieval English Economy, 1150-1500 (London, 1985)

Samuel K. Cohn, Jr., ed. and trans., Popular Protest in Late Medieval Europe: Italy, France and Flanders, Selected Sources Translated and Annotated, (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2004)

A. Dunn The Great Rising of 1381: The Peasant's Revolt and England's Failed Revolution,  (Stroud, Tempus, 2004)

A. Dunn, The Peasants’ Revolt, 2nd Rev Ed edition (The History Press Ltd. 2004)

C. Dyer, 'The Social and Economic Background to the Rural Revolt of 1381' from R.H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, eds, The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge, 1984). pp 9-42.

C. Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England c.1200-1520 (Cambridge, 1989).

P. J. P. Goldberg (2004), Medieval England 1250-1550: A Social History, ; Chapter 13 is devoted to the Peasants' Revolt

B.A. Hanawalt, The Ties That Bound: Peasant Families in Medieval England (1986)
J. Hatcher, Plague, Populations and the English Economy, 1348-1530 (London, 1977).

R. H. Hilton Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant Movements and the English Peasant Rising of 1381. (London, 1973)

R.H. Hilton and T. H. Aston, eds, The English Rising of 1381 (Cambridge, 1984)

On economy and society, see

C. Dyer, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain, 850-1520 (New Haven and London, 2002).

C. Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle Ages: Social Change in England c.1200-1520 (Cambridge, 1989).

Given-Wilson, C., ‘Service, Serfdom, and English Labour Legislation, 1350-1500’, in Curry, A. and Matthew, E., Concepts and Patterns of Service in the Later Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 2000), 21-37.

R. H. Hilton, The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England (London, 1983).

P. Schofield, Peasant and Community in Medieval England (Basingstoke, 2003).

Z. Razi and R. Smith, eds., Medieval Society and the Manor Court (Oxford, 1996).

E. Miller and J. Hatcher, Medieval England: Towns, Commerce and Crafts, 1086-1348 (London, 1995).

R. H. Britnell, The Commercialisation of English Society, 1000-1500 (Cambridge, 1993).

H. Swanson, Medieval Artisans: An Urban Class in Late Medieval England (Oxford, 1989).

J. Bennett, Ale, Beer and Brewsters in England: Women’s Work in a Changing World 1300-1600 (New York and Oxford, 1996).

R. Horrox, ed., Fifteenth-Century Attitudes: Perceptions of Society in Late Medieval England (Cambridge, 1994).

P. Fleming, Family and Household in Medieval England (Basingstoke, 2001).

M. E. Mate, Women in Medieval English Society (Cambridge, 1999).

M. E. Mate, Daughters, Wives and Widows after the Black Death, 1350-1535 (Woodbridge, 1998).

P. J. P. Goldberg, Women, Work, and Life-Cycle in a Medieval Economy: Women in York and Yorkshire, c.1300-1520 (Oxford, 1992).

B. M. S. Campbell, English Seigneurial Agriculture, 1250-1450 (Cambridge, 2000).

B. M. S. Campbell, ed., Before the Black Death: Studies in the ‘Crisis’ of the Early Fourteenth Century (Manchester, 1991).

L. R. Poos, A Rural Society after the Black Death: Essex, 1350-1525 (Cambridge, 1991).

J. Bothwell et al., The Problem of Labour in Fourteenth-Century England (Woodbridge, 2000).

C. M. Barron, London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200-1500 (Oxford, 2004).

The Church and Lollardy

E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400–1580, 2nd ed. (London, Yale UP, 2005).)

A. Hudson, The Premature Reformation , (Oxford, Clarendon, 1988)

R. N. Swanson Church and Society in Late Medieval England

R. Rex The Lollards

Robin Hood:

R. B. Dobson and J. Taylor The Rymes of Robin Hood

J. C. Holt, Robin Hood, 2nd revised edition (London, Thames & Hudson; 1989)

S. Knight Robin Hood: a Complete Study

Political history and Richard II

G. Harris Shaping the Nation: England 1360-1461

M. McKisack The Fourteenth Century 1307-1399. (1959)

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

A. Tuck Crown and Nobility 1272‑1461

J. A. F. Thomson The Transformation of Medieval England

For political life and government, see

R. Frame, The Political Development of the British Isles, 1100-1400 (Oxford, 1995).

R. R. Davies, ed., The British Isles, 1100-1500: Comparisons, Contrasts and Connections (Edinburgh, 1988).

R. R. Davies, The First English Empire: Power and Identities in the British Isles, 1093-1343 (Oxford, 2000).

J. Taylor and W. Childs, eds., Politics and Crisis in Fourteenth-Century England (Stroud, 1990).

A. Harding, The Law Courts of Medieval England (London and New York, 1973).

Harriss, G. L., ‘Political Society and the Growth of Government in Late Medieval England’, Past and Present 138 (1993), 28-57

R. G. Davies and J. H. Denton, eds., The English Parliament in the Middle Ages (Manchester, 1981).

N. Pronay and J. Taylor, Parliamentary Texts of the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 1980).

L. Clark and C. Carpenter, eds., Political Culture in Late Medieval Britain (Woodbridge, 2004).

G. Harriss, King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to c.1369 (Oxford, 1975).

J. H. Denton and J. P. Dooley, Representatives of the Lower Clergy in Parliament, 1295-1340 (Woodbridge, 1987).

G. Holmes, The Good Parliament (Oxford, 1975).

S. Justice, Writing and Rebellion: England in 1381 (Berkeley, CA, 1994).

A. Dunn, The Politics of Magnate Power in England and Wales, 1389-1413 (Oxford, 2003).

On the gentry and the nobility, see

S. Walker, The Lancastrian Affinity, 1361-1399 (Oxford, 1990).

C. Carpenter, Locality and Polity: A Study of Warwickshire Landed Society, 1401-1499 (Cambridge, 1992).

C. Carpenter, ‘Gentry and Community in Medieval England’, Journal of British Studies 33 (1994), 340-80.

K. Mertes, The English Noble Household, 1250-1600: Good Governance and Politic Rule (Oxford, 1998).

C. M. Woolgar, The Great Household in Late Medieval England (New Haven and London, 1999).

C. Richmond, The Paston Family in the Fifteenth Century, 3 vols. (Cambridge, 1990-2000).

J. Vale, Edward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society and its Context 1270-1350 (Woodbridge, 1982).

H. E. L. Collins, The Order of the Garter, 1348-1461: Chivalry and Politics in Late Medieval England (Oxford, 2000).

J. Bothwell, ‘Edward III and the ‘new nobility’: largesse and limitation in fourteenth century England’, English Historical Review 112 (1997), 1111-40.

A. Goodman, John of Gaunt: The Exercise of Princely Power in Fourteenth-Century Europe (Harlow, 1992).

G. L. Harriss, Cardinal Beaufort: A Study in Lancastrian Ascendancy and Decline (Oxford, 1988).

On kings and kingship, see

M. Prestwich, The Three Edwards: War and State in England, 1272-1377 (London, 1981).

P. Binski, Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets: Kingship and the Representation of Power, 1200-1400 (New Haven, CT, 1995)

J. R. Maddicott, Thomas of Lancaster, 1307-1322: A Study in the Reign of Edward II (London, 1970)

N. Fryde, The Tyranny and Fall of Edward II, 1321-1326 (Cambridge, 1979).

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

N. Saul, ‘Richard II and the Vocabulary of Kingship’, English Historical Review 110 (1995), 854-77.

P. Strohm, England’s Empty Throne: Usurpation and the Language of Legitimation, 1399-1422 (London, 1998).

E. Powell, Kingship, Law and Society: Criminal Justice in the Reign of Henry V (Oxford, 1989).

R. A. Griffiths, The Reign of Henry VI (Stroud, 1998).

H. E. Maurer, Margaret of Anjou: Queenship and Power in Late Medieval England (Woodbridge, 2003).

J. Watts, Henry VI and the Politics of Kingship (Cambridge, 1996).

E. F. Jacob, Henry Chichele and the Ecclesiastical Politics of His Age (London, 1952).

C. Ross, Edward IV (London, 1974).

R. Horrox, Richard III: A Study of Service (Cambridge, 1989).

L. Gill, Richard III and Buckingham’s Rebellion (Stroud, 1999).

On the Wars of the Roses, see

C. Carpenter, The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, c.1437-1509 (Cambridge, 1997).

A. Goodman, New Monarchy: England 1471-1534 (Oxford, 1988).

A. F. Sutton and L. Visser-Fuchs, eds., The Reburial of Richard, Duke of York, 21-30 July 1476 (London, 1996).

J. Gillingham, The Wars of the Roses (London, 2001).

 


Essays and Assessment

The main workload for this course consists of reading for lectures and seminars, and two essays in preparation for assessment by exam:

Assessment will be by three-hour examination, which will be sat during the Semester 2 Examination Period in May (100%). You will be required to answer two questions. (50% each). Exam questions will relate to essay topics.

Two Essays

You are required to write two 2,500 word essays for this course. Those who do not produce two essays tend to do badly in the exam. The first essay is to be handed in at the lecture on 3 March 2011. The second essay is to be handed in at the lecture on 7 April 2011.

Remember that, with a university degree, you are qualified as an expert in your subject. It would thus be useful if, for each essay, you had read ten items. You should list all the works you have used in a bibliography at the end of your essay. You should use footnotes and put them in a consistent and standard form (in accordance with the rules given in the History Department Handbook, pp 64-69 – a link to this is on the course Blackboard site). It is best to begin by reading a general survey work before plunging into the detailed studies. Make sure you have read a recent work so that you are familiar with the current state of play. Your goal is the make a persuasive argument that shows your grasp of the subject, how to use information to make arguments, and to do so as clearly as possible.

 

SAMPLE ESSAY-PLAN:


Topic: Was the 1381 revolt the product of long-term economic change or was it the expression of short-term political issues?


1. THESIS Introduction: debate about causes of revolt: economic or political, short or long-term. Debate linked to wider theories of popular unrest.

2. ARGUMENT 1 Economic causes: Black Death, manorial change etc. See causes in demands and actions of rebels.


3. CONTRA ARGUMENT 1 Problems with economic causes: e.g. economic grievances do not give the rebels a unity? Need for a common target of revolt?


4. ARGUMENT 2 Political causes: the Hundred Years War, minority of Richard II, Gaunt etc.


5. CONTRA ARGUMENT 2 Problems with political causes: actions and demands of rebels are social and economic in nature?


6. RESOULTION/Conclusion: do we need to see political and economic causes as mutually exclusive? Were particular causes more important in some areas than others? Can we distinguish political and socio-economic causes?

 

How Undergraduate Essays are Marked: A Guide for Students

(Common for all classes)

Marking is not an exact science. Lecturers and tutors mark with quite clear ideas of what they’re looking for. These are indicated below. If you fulfil most of the criteria in each section you’ll get a first; if all but 2 or so, a 2.1; all but 3 or so, a 2.2; all but 4 or so for a 3rd; if you don’t fulfil any of them, you’ll fail.

You can build your skills up from this list if you choose to; you will be rewarded in life as well as in your university marks. It’s probably sensible to focus on just one thing in each area to work on at a time.

Structure and Argument:

  • Establish the problem(s): Give a clear introduction which establishes the intellectual problems the question/essay is addressing. As far as possible avoid generalised scene setting. Be careful with dictionary definitions: make sure you understand the ways in which scholars have developed the term concerned, which is likely to be used in a more nuanced way than it appears in a dictionary.

  • Clarity of organisation: In your introduction, also explain which intellectual problems you address in which sections of the essay, and indicate the kind of evidence you are using and the theoretical or conceptual approach you are taking.

  • Resolving the problem(s): Is there a clear conclusion which makes coherent statements about the intellectual issues raised in the introduction?

  • Relevance: Is every section of the essay clearly relevant to resolving the issues in the question/introduction? Have you expressed this in words rather than leaving the reader to guess at it?

  • Coherence: Is every section of the essay explicitly linked to the ideas in the sections preceding and following it? Is it clear when you are reinforcing an argument or offering an alternative to an argument?

  • Balance: Make sure you pay roughly equal and proportionate attention to each aspect of the problem.

  • Consistency: Show that you are aware of areas where contradictions or inconsistencies occur, or where alternative explanations would also be plausible, and make an effort to highlight and explain these.

Knowledge and Understanding:

  • Critique of others: Highlight the strengths and/or weaknesses of different approaches in the literature. Don’t just treat all authors as undifferentiated ‘authorities’.

  • Critique of self: Reflect on the problems and/or the advantages of the positions which you take, acknowledging the sources from which they are drawn.

  • Assessment: Where necessary, explain why some problems can’t be/haven’t been resolved, and/or suggest ways of doing so.

  • Precision: Suggest ways of thinking about or conceptualising problems, even if you cannot resolve them.

  • Critique of evidence: Provide an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of different sorts of evidence or theories, where necessary. Avoid simplistic statements about ‘bias’.

You might find this site useful: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thinking

Sources:

  • Breadth: Research and read widely, using the items posted on Blackboard, on the course outline and any you can find independently. Use Historical Abstracts Online, JRULM, Google Scholar, JSTOR, Project Muse, and relevant subject-specific search engines to research the topic for yourself.

  • Discrimination: Discriminate between high quality, challenging, useful reading, and less relevant material. Don’t try to cram in everything you’ve come up with.
  • Evidence: Use primary evidence to support your most important points. You can take it from secondary reading, as well as getting it from sources listed on the course outline, some of which (newspapers, Mass-Observation) are on-line through JRUL.
  • Persistence: Follow up leads that enable you to place your material and your authors in context.
  • Relevance: Try to argue from the evidence/case studies you have used. Phrases that may help you include things like ‘This evidence indicates that …’ or ‘This source contradicts the view that …’ or ‘This material reinforces the approach of …’
  • Specificity: Did they name all the people/groups of people they relied on to make arguments, or did they use generic ‘say nothing’ phrases like ‘Some historians have argued’, or ‘this position has been widely criticised’?


Style & Presentation:

  • Clarity: Is your English clear, fluid, dynamic, precise, well-phrased? Clear and reflective, or clunky and strange?

  • Precision: Try to use precise language such as ‘female agricultural labourers’, and avoid generalisations like ‘the masses’ or ‘the people’. Make sure that the subject of every sentence is clear. Try to avoid the passive tense, i.e. ‘women worked long hours’, rather than ‘long hours were worked’.
  • Clichés: Avoid clichés such as ‘the government cracked down on…’, or ‘the government was slammed in the press’. Avoid overly generalised statements such as ‘Britain pursued socially reforming policies…’ (Britain doesn’t do things – people do).
  • Complexity: Make sure your sentences are neither too long nor too short. Don’t use a multi-syllable word where a short word will work just as well.
  • Details: Compose your footnotes and bibliography according to the rules you learned during L1.
  • Legibility: Follow the layout guidelines.
  • Paragraphing: Paragraphs should not be less than 6 lines, or more than 1/3 of a page. Make sure you know how to use paragraphs to enhance your structure and argument.
  • Grammar: It is a good idea to read your work out loud before submitting it. This will enable you to spot unclear sentences and to check where punctuation is needed. A useful online site is:

http://www.bristol.ac.uk/arts/exercises/grammar/grammar_tutorial/index.htm

  • Appropriateness: Aim at a style that is precise, nuanced, flexible and a pleasure to read.


Essay Questions and Bibliographies

Abbreviations used in the book-list


Econ.H.R. Economic History Review

E.H.R. English Historical Review

T.R.H.S. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society


1. The Peasants' Revolt of 1381

'The 1381 revolt was aimed against the government not against the landlords.' Discuss.

 

General works on the revolt:

R. B. Dobson The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 (for sources)

R. H. Hilton Bond Men Made Free

C. Oman The Great Revolt of 1381 (1969 edition essential)

R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston The English Rising of 1381

E. B. Frdye The Great Revolt of 1381 (Historical Association Pamphlet no. 100).

J. H. Denton Orders and Hierarchies, ch. 7

A. Dunn The Great Rising of 1381

C. Valente The Theory and Practice of Revolt in Medieval England

 

General and economic background:

J. Hatcher, Plague, Populations and the English Economy, 1348-1530 (London, 1977).

J. L. Bolton The Medieval English Economy

R. H. Hilton The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England

R. H. Hilton The English Peasantry in the Later Middle Ages

G. A. Holmes, Estates of the Higher Nobility in England

A. R. Bridbury 'The Black Death', Econ. H. R., 26 (1973)

C. Dyer in R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston The English Rising

H. Eiden 'Joint action against bad lordship', History, 83 (1998)


Estate and local studies:

M. Mate 'Agrarian economy after the Black Death' Econ. Hist Rev., 37 (1984)

M. Mate 'Labour and labour services' Southern History, 7 (1985)

B. F. Harvey Westminster Abbey and its Estates

E. Searle Lordship and Community

F. R. H. Du Boulay The Lordship of Canterbury

C. Dyer Lords and Peasants in a Changing Society

N. Kenyon 'Labour conditions in Essex', Econ.H.R. 4 (1934).

C. Dyer Everyday Life in Medieval England, ch. 11.

R. Britnell 'Feudal reaction', Past and Present 128 (1990)

M. Bailey Medieval Suffolk, ch. 8.

W. Liddell and R. Wood Essex and the Great Revolt

E. B. Fryde Peasants and Landlords, chs 2-4.

L. R. Poos A Rural Society after the Black Death


Political causes and background:

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

G. Holmes The Good Parliament

M. McKisack The Fourteenth Century

G. Harriss Shaping the Nation

A. Goodman 'John of Gaunt', T.R.H.S., 37 (1987)

E. B. Fryde Studies in Medieval Trade and Finance

C. Petit-Dutaillis and G. Lefebvre Studies and Notes, II.

E. Searle 'The defence of England' Viator vol 3 (1972)

R. W. Kaeuper War, Justice and Public Order

B. Guenée States and Rulers in Later Medieval Europe

R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston The English Rising of 1381, ch. 7

B. H. Putnam The Enforcement of the Statute of Labourers

R. C. Palmer English Law in the Age of the Black Death

J. Bothwell The Problem of Labour, ch. 5


2. The Urban Revolts of 1381

'The urban risings of 1381 made use of the rural revolt of 1381 but did not share the same causes or objectives.' Discuss.


General:

S. Reynolds An Introduction to the History of English Medieval Towns

C. Oman The Great Revolt of 1381 (1969 edition).

R. H. Hilton Bond Men Made Free

R. H. Hilton Class Conflict and the Crisis of Feudalism chapter 11.

R. B. Dobson The Peasants' Revolt of 1381 (for sources).

A. Dunn The Great Rising of 1381

Monastic boroughs:

N. Trenholme English Monastic Boroughs

M. D. Lobel The Borough of Bury St Edmunds

 

London:

R. Bird The Turbulent London of Richard II

P. Nightingale 'Capitalists, crafts and constitutional change in late fourteenth century London',

Past and Present (1989)

C. M. Barron Revolt in London

B. Wilkinson 'The Peasants' Revolt of 1381' Speculum 1940

F. Pedersen 'The German Hanse and the Peasants Revolt', B.I.H.R. 1984.


Other local studies:

R. H. Hilton and T. H. Aston The English Rising of 1381 (esp. articles by Butcher and Dobson).

P. M. Timlott, ed. The Victoria County History of Yorkshire: the City of York p. 80 ff.

R. Holt 'Thomas of Woodstock and events at Gloucester in 1381' B.I.H.R. 1985

H. E. P. Grieve 'The rebellion in the county town', in W. H. Liddell and R. G. E. Wood, Essex and the Great Revolt

J. P. C. Roach, ed. The Victoria County History of Cambridgeshire vol III, pp. 8-12.

M. Bailey Medieval Suffolk

H. Hinck ‘The rising of 1381 in Winchester’, English Historical review 125 (2010), pp. 112-31.


3. The Peasants' Revolt: a Comparative Approach

'In its ideology, nature and causes, the 1381 revolt was typical of pre-industrial social protest.' Discuss.

On 1381: See general reading for topics 1 and 2

 

Theories of revolt:

T. Skocpol States and Social Revolution

B. Moore Injustice

L. Stone Causes of the English Revolution, chapter 1.

S. H. Rigby English Society in the Later Middle Ages, (London, Macmillan, 1995) ch. 3.

 

Pre-industrial revolt:

H. A. Landsberger Rural Protest

T. Shanin Peasants and Peasant Societies esp chapter 20.

G. Rudé Paris and London in the 18th Century chapter 1.

G. Rudé Ideology and Popular Protest

G. Rudé The Crowd in History

R. Mousnier Peasant Uprisings

J. Blum The End of the Old Order in Europe

B. Porchnev Les Soulevements Populaires en France

P. J. Coveney France in Crisis 1620-1675 (Porchnev-Mousnier debate).

E. P. Thompson 'The moral economy of the crowd' Past and Present (1971)

J. C. Scott Weapons of the Weak

 

Medieval revolt:

C. Valente The Theory and Practice of Revolt in Medieval England

S. K. Cohn Lust for Liberty: Social Revolt, 1200-1425

S. K. Cohn Popular Protest in Late Medieval Europe

C. Dyer et al Rodney Hilton's Middle Ages (Past and Present Supplement, 2, 2007, pp. 188-247).

S. H. Rigby A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages, ch. 4.

M. Mollatt and P. Wolff The Popular Revolutions of the Middle Ages

G. Fourquin The Anatomy of the Popular Rebellions of the Middle Ages

R. H. Hilton Bond Men Made Free


Cade's Revolt:

R. A. Griffiths The Reign of Henry VI

I. M. W. Harvey Jack Cade's Rebellion

J. N. Hare 'The Wiltshire risings of 1450', Southern History (1982).

M. Mate 'The economic and social roots of medieval popular rebellion' Econ. H. R., 45 (1992)


4. The Ballads of Robin Hood: Realism and Convention

Are the ballads of Robin Hood based on 'real-life' characters from medieval England or are they the product of literary convention and tradition?

 

For the text of the ballads, see R. B. Dobson and J. Taylor, The Rymes of Robin Hood (821.08 D18). Available in paperback.

 

General:

J. C. Holt Robin Hood

K. Carpenter, ed. Robin Hood

S. Knight Robin Hood

A. Pollard Imagining Robin Hood


On real-life bandits and medieval bandits:

E. J. Hobsbawm Bandits

E. J. Hobsbawm Primitive rebels

J. G. Bellamy Crime and Public Order in England

J. G. Bellamy 'The Coterel gang' E.H.R. 1964

E. L. G. Stones 'The Folvilles' T.R.H.S., 1957

B. A. Hanwalt, 'Ballads and bandits', in B. A. Hanawalt, ed., Chaucer's England

J. C. Appleby and P. Dalton Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England


Literary outlaws:

M. Keen The Outlaws of Medieval Legend

G. Burgess Two Medieval Outlaws

J. Heywood 'Hereward the Outlaw', Journal of Medieval History vol. 14 (1988)

T. H. Ohlgren Medieval Outlaws

S. Knight and T. Ohlgren Robin Hood and Other Outlaw Tales

J. C. Appleby and P. Dalton Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England


5. The Ballads of Robin Hood: Dating and Audience

Can the medieval ballads of Robin Hood be seen as the product of the conditions of some particular period? Are they the expression of the interests and attitudes of some particular social group or audience?

For the text of the ballads, see R. B. Dobson and J. Taylor, The Rymes of Robin Hood (821.08 D18). Available in paperback.

 

The original debate on the audience and appeal:

Articles by Hilton, Keen and Aston in Past and Present 1958, 1960 and 1961. Reprinted in R. H. Hilton, ed., Peasants, Knights and Heretics (Keen: 'I was wrong').

J. C. Holt Robin Hood - essential, preferably use the Second Edition (1989). Reviews of Holt by Dobson and Taylor in Northern History (1983) and Northern History (1989) and by Hilton in Times Literary Supplement (11th June 1982) (Hilton: 'I was right').


Other useful studies:

K. Carpenter, ed. Robin Hood

S. Knight Robin Hood (reviewed Northern History, 1997)

A. Pollard Imagining Robin Hood

A. J. Pollard, ‘Political ideology in the early stories of Robin Hood’, in J. C. Appleby and P. Dalton, eds, Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England

R. B. Dobson and J. Taylor 'The medieval origins of Robin Hood', Northern History 1972

J. R. Maddicott 'The birth and setting of Robin Hood', E.H.R., 1978

J. G. Bellamy Robin Hood (review, Popular Archaeology vol 6 (no. 14) 1985-6)

D. Crook 'Some further evidence concerning the origins of Robin Hood' , E.H.R. 1984

D. Crook, 'The sheriff of Nottingham and Robin Hood', in P. R. Coss and S. Lloyd, Thirteenth Century England volume II

P. R. Coss 'Aspects of cultural diffusion'. Past and Present (1985) (esp. pp. 66-79).

J. Bradbury The Medieval Archer

C. Dyer 'The rising in Suffolk', Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and History 36 (1988) (for Little John).

R. F. Green A Crisis of Truth, chapter 5.

B. A. Hanawalt 'Ballads and bandits', in B. A. Hanawalt, Chaucer's England

R. Almond and A. Pollard 'The yeomanry of Robin Hood', Past and Present, 170 (2001)

A. Aytoun 'Military service and the development of the Robin Hood legend', Nottingham Medieval Studies, 36 (1992)

D. Wiles The Early Plays of Robin Hood

P. Dalton Outlaws in Medieval and Early Modern England

J. Luxford ‘An English chronicle entry on Robin Hood’, Journal of Medieval History, 35 (2009), pp. 70-6.


6. The Deposition of Richard II

'The deposition of Richard II was the result of the king's alienation from England's political community'. Discuss.

 

A. Tuck Crown and Nobility 1272-1461

W. M. Ormrod Political Life in Medieval England

M. McKisack The Fourteenth Century

G. Harriss Shaping the Nation: England 1360-1461

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

C. D. Fletcher Richard II

M. Bennett Richard II and the Revolution of 1399

I. Mortimer The Fears of Henry IV

A. Steel Richard II

A. Dunn The Politics of Magnate Power

C. Valente The Theory and Practice of Revolt in Medieval England

K. B. McFarlane Lancastrian Kings ch. 3.

G. Dodd and D. Biggs, Henry IV: the Establishment of the Regime, ch. 2.

C. M. Barron 'The deposition of Richard II', in J. Taylor and W. Childs, Politics and Crisis in 14th-Century England (see also her article in History Today June, 1985).

C. M. Barron 'The tyranny of Richard II', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 41 (1968)

C. Barron, 'Richard II' in M. E. C. Jones, ed., The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. 6

J. L. Gillespie The Age of Richard II (esp. A. K. McHardy, 'Haxey's case').

R. G. Davies and J. H Denton The English Parliament, ch. 5.

M. Aston Thomas Arundel

M. Stouck 'Saints and rebels: hagiography and opposition to the king in late fourteenth-century England' Medievalia et Humanistica, 24, 1997.

C. Given-Wilson The Royal Household and the King's Affinity

A. Goodman and J. L. Gillespie Richard II, ch. 6.

A. Goodman John of Gaunt

A. Tuck Richard II and the English Nobility

R. H. Jones The Royal Policy of Richard II

R. R. Davies 'Richard II and the principality of Chester', in F. R. H. Du Boulay and C. M. Barron, The Reign of Richard II

J. L. Gillespie 'Richard II's archers of the Crown' Journal of British Studies, 18 (1979).

C. Given-Wilson 'Richard II, Edward II and the Lancastrian inheritance', E.H.R., 109 (1991)

J. J. N. Palmer England, France and Christendom

D. Biggs 'The revolution of 1399' in N. Saul, ed., Fourteenth Century England, vol. I (2000)


7. The Chronicle Sources for the Deposition of Richard II

'It is futile to write a history of Richard II's deposition on the basis of chronicle narratives and the smokescreen of Lancastrian propaganda that is the record and process of the deposition.' Discuss.

On Richard II - see topic 6, especially:

 

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

C. D. Fletcher Richard II

M. Bennett Richard II and the Revolution of 1399


Sources (editions and translations):

C. Given-Wilson, Chronicles of the Revolution (Manchester, 1993) excellent translated edition and bibliography of sources.

A. R. Myers English Historical Documents, IV: 1327-1485

C. Given-Wilson, The Chronicle of Adam Usk, 1377-1421

G. B. Stow Historia Vita et Regni Ricardi Secundi

B. Williams Chronique de la Traison et Mort

D. Preest and J. G. Clark The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham (translation)

J. Taylor et al. The St Albans Chronicle

T. Johnes Jean Froissart: Chronicles of England, France and Spain

Jean Creton 'A French metrical history' Archaeologia 20 (1824)

Jean Gower 'The Tripartite Chronicle', in E. W. Stockton, Major Latin Works of John Gower

F. S. Haydon Eulogium Historiarum (3 vols, Rolls Series)

M. V. Clarke 'The deposition of Richard II', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 14 (1930) - Dieulacres and Whalley Chronicles

J. Taylor The Kirkstall Abbey Chronicles (Thoresby Soc., 42, 1952)

Rotuli Parliamentorum, vol. III (for Record and Proccohness. Translation available in on-line Parliament Rolls via JRUL)

J. G. Clark The Chronica Maiora of Thomas Walsingham

D. R. Carlson The Deposition of Richard II (for The Record and Process)

Studies:

C. M. Barron 'The Tyranny of Richard II', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 41 (1968)

G. H. Martin 'Narrative sources for the reign of Richard II', in J. L. Gillespie, The Age of Richard II

J. Taylor 'Richard II in the chronicles', in A. Goodman and J. L. Gillespie, Richard II

C. Given-Wilson 'Adam of Usk, the Monk of Evesham and the parliament of 1397-8', Historical Research, 66 (1993)

C. Given-Wilson 'The manner of Richard II's Renunciation: a Lancastrian narrative?' E.H.R., 108 (1993)

A. Gransden Historical Writing in England, vol. II.

J. Taylor English Historical Literature in the 14th Century

J. J. N. Palmer 'The authorship, date and historical value of the French chronicles on the Lancastrian Revolution', Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 61 (1978-79).

G. O. Sayles, 'The deposition of Richard II: 3 Lancastrian narratives', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 54 (1981)

J. Sherborne, 'Charles VI and Richard II', in J. J.N. Palmer, Froissart: Historian

G. B. Stow 'Chronicles versus Records: the character of Richard II', in J. S. Hamilton and P. Bradley, Documenting the Past

G. B. Stow 'Richard II in Froissart's Chroniques', Journal of Medieval History 11 (1985)

G. B. Stow 'Richard II in Thomas of Walsingham's Chronicles', Speculum 59 (1984)

C. D. Fletcher 'Narrative and political strategies at the deposition' Journal of Medieval History 30 (2004)

J. M. Theilmann 'Caught between Political Theory and Political Practice: The Record and Process of the Deposition of Richard II', History of Political Thought, 25 (2004).

J. G. Clark A Monastic Renaissance at St Albans

C. Taylor ‘Weep thou for me in France: French views on the deposition of Richard II’, in W. M. Ormrod, ed., Fourteenth-Century England, volume III (2004)

J. G. Clark ‘Thomas Walsingham reconsidered’, Speculum 77 (2002)


8. The Deposition of Richard II and Conceptions of Kingship?

Was Richard's deposition the product of personal grudges and interests or of conflicting conceptions of kingship?

 

Richard II and conflicting conceptions of kingship:

C. Valente The Theory and Practice of Revolt in Medieval England

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

N. Saul 'Richard II's idea of kingship' in D. Gordon, et al. eds, The Regal Image of Richard II

N. Saul 'Richard II and the vocabulary of Kingship' E.H.R 110 (1995)

N. Saul The Three Richards

S. Walker 'Richard II's views of kingship' in R. E. Archer and S. Walker, eds, Rulers and Ruled

J. Taylor 'Richard II's views on kingship', Proceedings of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society, 14 (1971)

C. D. Fletcher 'Narrative and political strategies at the deposition' Journal of Medieval History 30 (2004)

C. D. Fletcher, Manhood and politics in the reign of Richard II', Past and Present, 189 (2005)

C. D. Fletcher Richard II

R. H. Jones The Royal Policy of Richard II

W. M. Ormrod Political Life in Medieval England

U. Grassnick, '"O Prince, Desyre to be Honourable": The Deposition of Richard II and Mirrors for Princes', in J. S. Hamilton, ed., Fourteenth-Century England, IV (2006).

L. Staley, Languages of Power in the Age of Richard II

J. M. Theilmann 'Caught between Political Theory and Political Practice: The Record and Process of the Deposition of Richard II', History of Political Thought, 25 (2004).

 

9. Art and Ideology under Richard II

What does the Wilton Diptych reveal about Richard II's conception of kingship?

For general theories of kingship, see the reading for essay 8

 

The Wilton Diptych

D. Gordon: The Wilton Diptych: Making and Meaning

D. Gordon, L. Monnas and C. Elam, The Regal Image of Richard II and the Wilton Diptych.

M. V. Clarke Fourteenth-Century Studies

J. H. Harvey 'The Wilton Diptych - a re-examination', Archaeologia, vol. 98 (1961).

F. J. Wormald 'The Wilton Diptych', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 17 (1954)

S. Whittingham 'The date of the Wilton Diptych', Gazette des-Beaux Arts, 98 (1981)

G. W. Coopland Philippe de Mezieres: Letter to King Richard II

J. J. N. Palmer England, France and Christendom

J. J. N. Palmer 'The background to Richard's marriage to Isabel', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, (1971).

A. Goodman and J. L. Gillespie, Richard II, pp. 10-13, 265-70

 

10: Richard II and the Hundred Years War

'Richard II's foreign policy played a central part in his downfall'. Discuss.

C. T. Allmand, Lancastrian Normany, 1415-1450: The History of a Medieval Occupation (Oxford, 1983).

C. T. Allmand, The Hundred Years War: England and France at War, c.1300-c.1450 (Cambridge, 2001).

M. Bennett Richard II and the Revolution of 1399

A. Curry The Hundred Years War

A. Curry and M. Hughes, eds., Arms, Armies and Fortifications in the Hundred Years War (Woodbridge, 1994).

G. Dodd The Reign of Richard II, ch. 2.

C. D. Fletcher Richard II

A. Goodman John of Gaunt

A. Goodman and J. L. Gillespie Richard II,

G. Harriss Shaping the Nation: England 1360-1461

M. Jones Ducal Brittany, 1364-1399

J. Keegan, The Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt (France), Waterloo and Somme (London, 1976).

J. J. N. Palmer England, France and Christendom, 1377-99

J. J. N. Palmer 'English foreign policy 1388-99', in F. R. H. Du Boulay and C. M. Barron, eds,

The Reign of Richard II

J. J. N. Palmer 'The background to Richard's marriage to Isabel', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, (1971).

P. E. Russell English Intervention in Spain and Portugal in the Time of Edward III and Richard II

N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

J. Sumption, The Hundred Years War, 3 vols. (London, 1999-2009).

A. Tuck, 'Richard II and the Hundred Years War', in J. Taylor and W. Childs, Politics and Crisis

M. G. A. Vale, English Gascony, 1399-1453: A Study of War, Government and Politics during the Later Stages of the Hundred Years War (London, 1970).

M. G. A. Vale, The Origins of the Hundred Years War: the Angevin Legacy, 1250-1340 (Oxford, 1996).

M. G. A. Vale, The Ancient Enemy: England, France, and Europe from the Angevins to the Tudors, 1154-1558 (London, 2007).


11. Opposition to Richard II in 1386-88

'The events of 1386-88 were a dress rehearsal for those of 1399'. Discuss.


N. Saul, Richard II, new ed. (London, Yale University Press, 1999)

A. Goodman, The Loyal Conspiracy: The Lords Appellant under Richard II (London, 1971)

M. Aston Thomas Arundel

J. S. Rosekll The Impeachment of Michael de la Pole

A. Tuck Crown and Nobility 1272-1461

M. McKisack The Fourteenth Century

G. Harriss Shaping the Nation: England 1360-1461

C. D. Fletcher Richard II

M. Bennett Richard II and the Revolution of 1399

A. Steel Richard II

J. L. Gillespie The Age of Richard II

R. G. Davies and J. H Denton The English parliament, ch. 5.

M. Aston Thomas Arundel

C. Given-Wilson The Royal Household and the King's Affinity

A. Goodman and J. L. Gillespie Richard II, ch. 6.

A. Tuck Richard II and the English Nobility

R. H. Jones The Royal Policy of Richard II

I. Mortimer The Fears of Henry IV


Sources for early Richard II

L. C. Hector and B. F. Harvey The Westminster Chronicle

G. H. Martin Knighton's Chronicle

M. McKisack, ed., Historia sive Narratio - Thomas Favent's Appellant propaganda (Camden Soc., 3rd series, 37, 1926)


12. Lollardy and Orthodoxy

'Paradoxically, Lollardy was not so much the opposite of the trends in the orthodox piety of the time as their logical conclusion'. Discuss.

 

The Church, piety and anti-clericalism:

G. R. Owst Literature and the Pulpit in Medieval England

J. Coleman English Literature in History

W. A. Pantin The English Church in the Fourteenth Century

E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400–1580, 2nd ed. (London, Yale UP, 2005).

R. N. Swanson Church and Society in Late Medieval England

R. N Swanson Catholic England

R. N. Swanson 'Problems of the priesthood in pre-reformation England', English Hist. Rev., 105 (1990)

D. B. Foss 'Overmuch blaming of the clergy's wealth' (on Pecock) in W. J. Sheils and D. Wood, The Church and Wealth (Studies in Church History vol. 24)

H. M. Carey 'Devout literate lay people and the pursuit of the mixed life' Journal of Religious History 14 (1986-7)

C. M. Barron 'The parish fraternities of medieval London' in C. M. Barron and C. Harper-Bill The Church in Pre-Reformation Society

R. L. Storey 'Malicious indictment of clergy in the fifteenth century' in M. J. Franklin and C.Harper-Bill, Medieval ecclesiastical studies

D. Aers and L. Stanley The Powers of Holy Religion

S. H. Rigby Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages, ch.19.

J. A. F. Thomson 'Orthodox religion and the origins of Lollardy', History, 74 (1989)


Wycliff and Lollardy:

A. Kenny Wyclif in his Times

A. Kenny 'Wyclif' Proceedings of the British Academy vol 72 (1986)

G. Leff Heresy in the Later Middle Ages vol. II

M. Lambert Medieval Heresy

J. Catto 'Wyclif and the Lollards' History Today 37 (1987)

K. B. McFarlane Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights

A. Hudson The Premature Reformation

R. Rex The Lollards

M. Aston Lollards and Reformers

J. A. F. Thomson 'Orthodox religion and the origins of Lollardy'., 74 (1989)

H. Hargreaves 'The Wycliffite Glossed Gospels', Traditio 48 (1993)


Lollard sources:

A. Hudson English Wycliffite Sermons, vols 1-5.

A. Hudson Selections from English Wycliffite Sermons

H. S. Cronin Roger Dymmok Liber

G. Cigman Lollard Sermons (Early English Text Society, 1989, vol. 294 - but see Hargreaves, Traditio, 1994.

A. Hudson Two Wycliffite texts (Early English Text Society, 301 (1993).

H. Cronin 'The 12 Conclusions of the Lollards', E.H.R., 22 (1907). Also in A. R. Myers, English Historical Documents, vol. 4, 1327-1485 (S942.E54 and E59)


13. Wyclif and Lollardy

To what extent was there a continuity between the academic theology of Wyclif and the piety of the later Lollards?


Wyclif:

K. B. McFarlane John Wycliffe and the Beginnings of English Nonconformity

A. Kenny Wyclif in his Times

A. Kenny 'Wyclif' Proceedings of the British Academy vol 72 (1986)

S. Lahey John Wyclif

J. A. Robson Wyclif and the English Schools

G. Leff 'Wyclif: the path to dissent', Proceedings of the British Academy 52 (1966)

A. Hudson The Premature Reformation

P. Heath Church and realm ch. 6

J. Catto 'Wyclif and the cult of the Eucharist', in K. Walsh and D. Wood, The Bible in the Medieval World

M. Wilks 'Predestination, property and power', in G. J. Cuming, ed. Studies in Church History, II.


Lollardy:

G. Leff Heresy in the Later Middle Ages vol. II

J. Catto 'Wyclif and the Lollards' History Today 37 (1987)

J. Catto 'Wyclif and Wycliffism at Oxford', in J. I. Catto and T. A. R. Evans, The History of the University of Oxford, vol. II

A. Hudson The Premature Reformation

A. Hudson Lollards and their Books

M. Aston Lollards and Reformers

R. Rex The Lollards

I. Forrest The Detection of Heresy in Late Medieval England

 

Lollard sources:

A. Hudson English Wycliffite Sermons, vols 1-5.

A. Hudson Selections from English Wycliffite Sermons

G. Cigman Lollard Sermons (Early English Text Society, 1989, vol. 294 - but see Hargreaves, Traditio, 1994.

A. Hudson Two Wycliffite texts (Early English Text Society, 301 (1993).

H. Cronin 'The 12 Conclusions of the Lollards', E.H.R., 22 (1907). Also in A. R. Myers,

English Historical Documents, vol. 4, 1327-1485 (S942.E54 or E59)


14. The Lollard Movement.

What was the appeal of Lollardy? Was Lollardy a 'popular' movement? Was there a unity to Lollard doctrine?


G. Leff Heresy in the Later Middle Ages vol. II

J. Catto 'Wyclif and the Lollards' History Today 37 (1987)

K. B. McFarlane Lancastrian Kings and Lollard Knights

J. I. Catto 'Sir William Bauchamp: between chivalry and Lollardy', in C. Harper-Bill and R. Harvey, eds, The Ideals and Practice of Medieval Knighthood, vol. III

A. Hudson The Premature Reformation

A. Hudson Lollards and their Books

E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England, 1400–1580, 2nd ed. (London, Yale UP, 2005).

M. Aston Lollards and Reformers

R. Rex The Lollards

M. Aston 'Caim's castles', in R. B. Dobson, The Church, Politics and Patronage in the 15th Century

M. Wilks Articles in D. Baker., ed. Studies in Church History, vols 3 and 9.

M. Wilks 'Royal priesthood, in The Church in a Changing Society (261.6 C107).

D. Plumb 'The social and economic spread of Lollardy', in W. J. Sheils and D. Wood, Studies in Church History, vol. 23

S. Forde 'New sermon evidence for the spread of Lollardy', in T. L. Amos, et al., eds, De Ore Domini.

M. Aston and C. Richmond, Lollardy and Gentry

I. Forrest The Detection of Heresy in Late Medieval England

P. McNiven Heresy and Politics in the Reign of Henry IV

J. A. F. Thomson The Later Lollards

J. A. F. Thomson 'Orthodox religion and the origins of Lollardy'. History, 74 (1989)

R. G. Davies 'Lollardy and locality' T.R.H.S. 6th series vol 1. 1 (1991)

S. McSheffrey Gender and Heresy (anticipated in 'Women and Lollardy' Canadian Journal of History 26 (1991)

S. Forde 'Nicholas of Hereford's Ascension Day sermon', Medieval Studies, 51 (1989)

M. Jurkowski 'Heresy and factionalism at Merton College in the early fifteenth century' Journal of Ecclesiastical History 48 (1997).

P. Heath Church and Realm ch. 6.

S. H. Rigby English Society in the Later Middle Ages

S. H. Rigby A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages, ch. 19.

M. Jurkowski ‘Lollardy and social status’, Speculum 82 (2007)


Lollard sources:

A. Hudson English Wycliffite Sermons, vols 1-5.

A. Hudson Selections from English Wycliffite Sermons

G. Cigman Lollard Sermons (Early English Text Society, 1989, vol. 294 - but see Hargreaves, Traditio, 1994.

A. Hudson Two Wycliffite texts (Early English Text Society, 301 (1993).

H. Cronin 'The 12 Conclusions of the Lollards', E.H.R., 22 (1907). Also in A. R. Myers, English Historical Documents, vol. 4, 1327-1485 (S942.E54 or E59)

 

 

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