Subsidiary SourcebooksAfricanEastern AsianGlobalIndianJewishIslamicLesbian/GayScienceWomen

Special ResourcesByzantiumMedieval WebMedieval NYC
Medieval MusicSaints' Lives
Ancient Law
Medieval Law
Film: Ancient
Film: Medieval
Film: Modern
Film: Saints

About IHSPIHSP Credits

Internet History Sourcebooks Project

Paul Halsall, Editor


Welcome to The Internet History Sourcebooks Project, a collection of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use. Primary sources are available here primarily for use in high-school and university/college courses. From the outset the site took a very broad view of the sources that should be available to students and as well as documents long associated with a "western civilization" approach to history also provides much information on Byzantine, Islamic, Jewish, Indian, East Asian, and African history. You will also find many documents especially relevant to women's history and LGBT studies.

Search engines such as Google now deliver may users directly to relevant documents, but the various Index pages are the key to the best use of this site. You can access the major divisions of the site from the subject indexes at the top of each page. Within each major division the left of each page directs you to more focused indexes. Any given document may me listed in several indexes.

The IHSP is both very large and fairly old in Internet terms. At the time it was instigated (1996), it was not clear that web sites and the documents made available there would often turn out to be ephemeral. The index pages therefore contained links to the thousands of documents available at this Fordham University website alongside links to documents at other websites. As a result of a process called "link rot" - which means that a "broken link" is a result of someone having taken down a web page - this means some links no longer worked. Since 2000, very few links to external sites have been made and we make efforts is under way to remove bad links. Very often you will be able to find archived versions of such documents by using the Wayback Machine [].

This site at Fordham can now be searched via the Search box at the top of each page.

I am always happy to hear from people who wish to submit copy permitted texts to the various sites below.

Statement on Copyright and Fair Use

The Internet History Sourcebooks
  • Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
    A "classroom usable" sourcebook of copy-permitted material for Ancient history and civilization courses.
  • Internet Medieval Sourcebook
    This is an online sourcebook of copy-permitted, although not necessarily copyright-free, source material for Medieval Studies. It is the largest online resource of medieval and Byzantine textual sources. 
  • Internet Modern History Sourcebook
    Now with almost as many online texts as the Medieval Sourcebook, this also constitutes a "classroom usable" sourcebook of copy-permitted material for Modern European history and Modern Civilization courses. North American and Latin American documents are located within its structure.

The following consist of thematically based subsets of texts, with some additional documents and links, of the three main Source-books listed above. SOURCEBOOK THEMES

The following consist of thematically based subsets of texts entirely taken from the three main Sourcebooks listed above, along with documents from the subsidiary source-books
  • Travelers' Accounts
    Traveler's accounts of their journeys and the lands they visit are important sources in understanding the past.  As outsiders, travelers often note aspects of a culture that are too commonplace for local commentators to mention. More than this, travelers often provide some insight into how their own society understood itself in relation to other cultures.
  • Legal History: Ancient and Medieval

Historical Studies Websites
Comprehensive Bibliographies

Course Pages by Paul Halsall

These pages have largely been removed. I leave a few, however, for historical interest.

Modern History Course
A page created for my Fall 1997, and after, Modern History survey course at Fordham University, The West: From the Enlightenment to the Present.   

Medieval Studies Course or low graphics version
A page created for my Fall 1996, and after, Medieval survey course at Fordham University, The Shaping of the Medieval World.   

How to Cite Documents at the Internet History Sourcebooks Project The author and maintainer of this site is Paul Halsall [picture]. He can be contacted by email at
Please do not hesitate to mail comments or suggestions.
The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of  Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies. The Internet History Sourcebooks Project [IHSP] is a world wide web project designed to provide easy access to primary sources and other teaching materials in a non-commercial environment.  It was developed and is edited by Paul Halsall with the aid of numerous other contributors. The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

Site Design: Paul Halsall
© created 1/26/1996 : revision dates at head of page